culture of uzbekistan

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Culture of Uzbekistan: Applied Arts

Handicraft developed in Uzbekistan from century to century, leaving unique products of the unknown foremen with rich arts, imaginations and perfection in Uzbek heritage. Due to the changes of social and economic conditions, handicraft gradually became the second after industrial productions on an extent of 20th century.

Ceramic. Pottery was one of the most developed manufactures of the Central Asia for several years. Spray and dry ceramics of the leading centers had local peculiarities that have been reflected in the original forms of final products. Number of local pottery centers are preserved to present days, such as Rishton, Ghijduvon, Khiva, Samarkand, Gurumsaray, Shakhrisabz, Urgut, Khorezm and Tashkent.

Engraving. Modern foremen, who work with a brass and copper, manufacture high quality products of engraving. A subtlety and wealth of patterns are inherent in the ware by the Bukhara foremen. Alongside the use of traditional forms of products, now foremen search for new forms and styles in the field.

Wood engraving. Masters of wood engraving in Kokand National Heritage Center use oak and nut trees. Creating traditional products common in the East (caskets, bookshelves, and craved tables), they transfer rich traditions of geometrical ornaments.

Gold embroidery. Traditional center of this kind of crafts is in Bukhara. Today embroidery art is popular among the younger generation, as well. The foremen produce goods in the best traditions of the Bukhara gold embroidery.

Embroidery. Traditional centers of manufacturing of suzana are: Nurata, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shakhrisabz, Tashkent and Fergana. Many young artists have become interested in these kind of art. This is, not casual - as if creative energy in the people has woken up, by feeling an opportunity of practical realization and material effect, which in its turn led the flourishing of many kinds of traditional arts.

Dolls. Manufacturing of dolls is one of the particularly lost and revived arts. In recent history, theatrical presentations of dolls were the favorite entertainment of both villages and town drewllers. The doll master of Bukhara study a history of a Bukhara costume, use traditional technology of tailoring, embroidery, and the Bukhara karakul fur.

Carpeting. Now manufacturing of carpets in Uzbekistan develops in 3 directions: homemade, state and private companies. Carpet masters produce all kinds of carpets in these provinces. Old classical Uzbek and Turkmen carpets are used as main samples in carpet making. Main tasks of carpet-makers include the restoration of ancient drawings, creation of new good quality products, and above all, - restoration of technology of traditional dying of natural fabric. Long use of aniline dyes had its negative effect upon aesthetic qualities of the homemade carpets with further turning them to an ordinary household item.

Silk weaving. The revival of the silk weaving is related to the activity of "Yodgorlic" company in Margilan. Today production of national fabrics such as atlas, khon-atlas, shkhi-bekasam and bakhmal is restored. Ancient traditional patterns are revived, and at the same time, special attention is paid towards restoration of natural dyes.

Silk carpets. Production of silk carpets is revived in Samarkand, where silk carpet factory has been established. The factory only uses local natural dyes, which give the final product a sense of originality.
The carpets are woven an vertical and horizontal looms. Density ranges from 600-800 thousand knots to 1 million 200 thousand knots per square meter. The length of nap does not exceed 2 mm. The silk string goes both into a base and weft of a carpet. The final product is extremely thin and simultaneously solid. The quality of work is very high, but the main feature is its decorations. Handmade carpets are made during several months.

Varnished painting. In revival of the varnished painting, a tradition, which was completely lost, the technology of varnish and Oriental tradition of miniature painting is used. Through a varnish painting a verity of small and basic caskets are decorated. The painting is carried out using natural dyes with egg yolk base.

Jewelry. The art of jewelry making in Uzbekistan has its long traditions. From the century to century zargar masters have created unique jewelry items. In the second half of the 20th century jewelry became an industrial product, which resulted to some unification of jewelry items, a gradule simplification and distortion of traditional forms of ornaments, and the refusal of some kinds of technology.

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