History of Uzbekistan: From primitive to ancient states
The current territory of the republic of Uzbekistan
is one of the seats of an active primitive settlement. The traces of primeval humans in the form of primitive labor instruments, habitation, and temporary settlements are found in various zones ranging from mountain tracts and sands of the Kyzyl Kum deserts.
The remains of the Paleolithic (about from 700-600 until 12000 years B.C.), Mesolithic (12000 - 5000 B.C.), Neolithic (6000 - 4000 B.C.), and Bronze Age (3000 - beginning 1000 B.C.) periods found in many parts of the territory of Uzbekistan
The Teshiktosh cave was discovered in Surkhandarya province in 1938. Besides the remains of a fireplace, animal bones, and work tools, the scientists also discovered a Neanderthal boy's burial place alongside the horns of a mountain goat, which served as evidence of some kind of spiritual existence, and probably, religious views of primitive men.
The remains of the early Stone age on the territory of Uzbekistan
date back to eight to six centures B.C. in the ancient provinces such as Bactria
, Khorezm, Shosh, and Fergana
During the second half of 1000 B.C. the ancient regions of Bactria
, Khorezm and Sogdiana saw the invaision on the part of the Achaemenid tsars, and were further annexed to their huge empire as eastern provinces.
During that period, town planning, fortification, architecture and various handicrafts were developed. The first caravan roads were laid, which later whould become the main pathways for the Great Silk Road.